Northwestern University Information Technology
MorphAdorner Northwestern
Adorning Named Entities

AdornWithNamedEntities adorns XML texts with named entities such as person, location, time, date, and organization. It is an experimental procedure based upon the Gate named entity extractor ANNIE with a few modifications to improve its utility for literary purposes.


adornwithnamedentities outputdirectory input1.xml input2.xml ...


  • outputdirectory -- output directory to receive xml files adorned with named entities.
  • input*.xml -- input TEI XML files.

The named entity adorner does not always recognize entities which cross soft tags. Thus "Emma Woodhouse" may be recognized as two separate entities. AdornedWithNamedEntities should be run on the input files before their submission to MorphAdorner.

Gate uses the following XML tags for marking named entities. AdornWithNamedEntities maps these to the TEI-Analytics "<rs>" with a specific type= attribute value.

Gate TEI-Analytics
<Date> for a date <rs type="date">
<Location> for a location <rs type="location">
<Money> for an amount of money <rs type="money">
<Organization> for an organization <rs type="organization">
<Person> for a person <rs type="person">
<Time> for a time <rs type="time">

Gate seems to generate "Date" where one might expect "Time" to appear.

In addition to the named entity types generated by Gate, AdornWithNamedEntities can also generate <rs type="literary"> for literary references. This has not been fully implemented.

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