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MorphAdorner Northwestern

Introduction to NUPOS and Morphology

This section details Martin Mueller's "NUPOS" part of speech tagset and makes explicit the structure of the tagset and other related morphology objects such as "spellings", "word classes", "lemmata", and "word parts".

As a convention, in this discussion, when we use the term "word", it means "a specific single occurrence of a word somewhere in a text." For the concept of a "word in general", we will use the terms "headword" and "lemma", which we'll define and discuss in detail later.

The full version of NUPOS can handle both Greek and English texts and part of speech tagging. Here we only describe the subset of NUPOS that deals with English. For more information, see Martin Mueller's fuller description.


The first and most basic attribute of a word is its spelling. This may seem to be a simple concept, but especially for earlier texts from periods before spelling became regularized, it is useful to distinguish among several different meanings of the term "spelling". In NUPOS there are three different "spellings" for each word:

1. The "token spelling". This is the spelling of the word exactly as it appears in the original digital source for the text, including all capitalization and any typographical conventions that might be used in the source as markup for various purposes. For example, the original source for a text might contain a word token "common|lie", where the encoders used the vertical bar character "|" to mark up a soft hyphen at the end of a line. As another example, in some early printed texts, a "y" with a superscript "t" was used to represent the word "that". Such a word might be marked up as "y^t" in the source for such a text. As a final example, the token "@abper;fecit" might appear in the source for an early text. In this example "&abper;" is a symbol used in early typesetting as an abbreviation for "per" or "par".

The token spelling retains as much fidelity as possible with the original digital source. It will often contain various kinds of non-uniform markup, as used by the organizations that digitally encoded the texts. It may be of interest to some researchers, but most people will be more interested in the other two kinds of spellings.

The token spelling may be of importance in contexts where an application wishes to reproduce as much visual fidelity as possible with original printed texts when displaying the text to users.

2. The "standard original spelling". This is a version of the spelling with the typographical conventions normalized, and in most contexts is probably what one thinks of when one uses the general term "the spelling of the word". It is usually identical with the token spelling, but not always. In the examples above, the three tokens become the following "standard original spellings":

common|lie --> commonlie
y^t --> that
@abper;fecit --> perfecit

3. The "standard modern spelling". This is the standard modern orthographic form of the original spelling. But the morphological form is not modernized. Thus a spelling like "lovyth" is regularized to "loveth". "loveth" is not, however, regularized to "loves", but is rather recognized as a standard archaic form. In the three examples above, the standard modern spellings are as follows:

common|lie --> commonlie --> commonly
y^t --> that --> that
@abper;fecit --> perfecit --> perfecit

Note that "perfecit" is a Latin word, and at no point is there an attempt made to translate foreign words into English.

For modern texts, the three spellings are nearly always identical. The main exceptions will be for words in XML texts split by decorator (soft) tags.

Word Parts

Words have spellings, as outlined above. We also want to enumerate and discuss in detail their other tagging attributes, such as word class, part of speech, and lemma. Before we can do this, however, we need to discuss a pesky complexity of texts - contractions.

Consider as an example the first word of Hamlet, "Who's". This is a single lexical word, and in this example all three spellings of the word are the same string "Who's".

In terms of the other attributes, however, this word is properly considered to be a lexical representation of the two separate words "who" and "is". Each part has its own word class, part of speech and lemma. In this particular example, it might also be possible to think of each part as having its own spelling or "sub-spelling", "who" and "'s", but in the general case it might be difficult to reasonably split up a spelling into its pieces, and the current version of NUPOS does not attempt to do this.

In NUPOS, this word "who's" is tagged as follows:

word part
major word class
word class
part of speech
who (crq)
be (va)

While we might wish that this complexity didn't exist or could be safely ignored, it can be important when analyzing texts. For example, consider the set of all words in Shakespeare which are instances of the auxiliary verb "be". In NUPOS, the first word of Hamlet is correctly included as a member of this set. It is also a member of the set of all words in Shakespeare which are instances of the wh-word "who".

As another example, consider the general notion of counting different kinds of words in Shakespeare. In NUPOS, the count of the total number of occurrences of the auxiliary verb "be" includes the first word of Hamlet, as it should, as does the count of the total number of occurrences of the wh-word "who". The first word of Hamlet is counted twice, once as "be" and once as "who". Consequently, the sum of the counts of the number of different kinds of words in Hamlet is equal to the number of word parts in Hamlet, not the number of words.

As a final example, consider an analysis of bigrams in Shakespeare. In NUPOS, the first word of Hamlet is considered to be an instance of the bigram "the lemma who (crq) followed by the lemma be (va)", as well as an instance of the bigram "word class crq followed by part of speech vaz".

In the general case, each word, while it usually only has one part, might have more than one part -- two parts in the case of most contractions, but at least conceivably perhaps even more than two parts. While it is words which possess spelling attributes, it is their parts which possess the other morphological attributes, and this is an important distinction to keep in mind.

In the normal case, when a word has only one part, we often use the simple term "word" to refer to its unique part. For example, we say "this word is a verb", when to be precise what we are really saying is "the one and only part of this word is a verb."

Word Classes

In NUPOS, each word part has a "major word class" and a "word class". These concepts provide the coarsest ways to categorize words.

There are 17 major word classes, which should be self-explanatory:

Major word classes
foreign word

Major word classes are subdivided into a slightly finer categorization by "word class". There are 34 word classes in NUPOS:

Name Description Major Class
acp adverb/conjunction/particle/preposition adv/conj/pcl/prep
an adverb/noun noun
av adverb adverb
cc coordinating conjunction conjunction
crq wh-word wh-word
cs subordinating conjunction conjunction
d determiner determiner
dt article determiner
fo foreign foreign word
fr French foreign word
ge German foreign word
gr Greek foreign word
it Italian foreign word
j adjective adjective
jn adjective/noun adjective
jp proper adjective adjective
la Latin foreign word
n noun noun
np proper noun noun
nu numeral numeral
pf preposition "of" preposition
pi indefinite pronoun pronoun
pn personal pronoun pronoun
po possessive pronoun pronoun
pp preposition preposition
pu punctuation punctuation
px reflexive pronoun pronoun
sy symbol symbol
uh interjection interjection
v verb verb
va auxiliary verb verb
vm modal verb verb
xx negative negative
zz undetermined undetermined

Each word class has a very short string which provides a name for the word class, and each word class belongs to one and only one of the major word classes.

For example, for the major word class "verb", there are three word classes "va" (auxiliary verb), "vm" (modal verb), and "v" (verb). So in NUPOS, there are three kinds of verbs.

Parts of Speech

NUPOS has a fine-grained part of speech tagset, much finer-grained than the word classes and major word classes. There are 241 total English parts of speech in the current version of NUPOS (not counting punctuation).

Each part of speech belongs to one and only one word class, so the part of speech tagset in NUPOS represents a subdivision of the word class tagset, in the same way that the word class tagset represents a subdivision of the major word class tagset.

To continue the example of verbs, in NUPOS each of the verb word classes contains a number of parts of speech:

word class va (auxiliary verb): 19 parts of speech
word class vm (modal verb): 14 parts of speech
word class v (verb): 27 parts of speech

Each part of speech, in addition to belonging to a word class, is also characterized by, and largely defined by, how it is used in various grammatical categories. These categories and their possible values should be mostly self-explanatory to those familiar with English grammar.

Syntax (used as): See below.
Tense: pres, past or empty (not applicable)
Mood: ppl, inf, impt or empty (not applicable)
Case: gen, obj, subj, or empty (not applicable)
Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or empty (not applicable)
Number: sg, pl, or empty (not applicable).
Degree: comp, sup, or empty (not applicable).
Negative: no, nor, not, or empty (not applicable).

As an example, the NUPOS part of speech "vmd2" is used for modal verbs used in the second person singular past tense. It has the following attributes in addition to its name "vmd2":

word class = vm (modal verb)
syntax = vm
tense = past
mood = empty
case = empty
person = 2nd
number = sg
degree = empty
negative = empty

An example of this part of speech occurs in Act 5, Scene 1 of Hamlet, where Gertrude says "I hoped thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife;" In this passage, the word "shouldst" is tagged with the lemma "shall (vm)" and the part of speech "vmd2". By virtue of this tagging, we know all of the following facts about this word:

It is an instance of the headword "shall"
It is a verb.
It is a modal verb.
It has NUPOS part of speech "vmd2".
It is in the past tense.
It is in the second person.
It is singular.

In a full implementation of NUPOS, any of these attributes can be used as a criterion for searching, grouping, sorting, counting, and analysis. For example, a researcher might compare the use of past tense modal verbs by one author to their use by another author, or he might do a search where he finds all uses of second person singular verbs in the works of Chaucer. Or he might find all of the verbs used in Spenser and generate a report which counts up how many times each of them are used in the various possible combinations of person and number.

The "syntax" attribute is used to specify how the part of speech is used. For example, the part of speech "av-j" is used for adjectives that are used as adverbs. The "syntax" attribute of this part of speech is "av". An example of this part of speech occurs in Act 1, Scene 1 of Hamlet, where Bernardo says "Long live the king!" The word "Long" in this passage in used as an adverb modifying the verb "live" and has the NUPOS part of speech "av-j". Contrast this with the word "long" in Act 3, Scene 1, where Hamlet says "That makes calamity of so long life;". In this passage, the word "long" is tagged with the part of speech "j", the part of speech for "normal" uses of adjectives. Both of the parts of speech "av-j" and "j" have the word class "j" and major word class "adjective", but "av-j" has the syntax attribute "av", while "j" has the syntax attribute "j".

Martin has also mentioned the possibility of more coarse-grained versions of NUPOS, finer grained than word classes but coarser than the full set of 220+ parts of speech. These intermediate levels of NUPOS may be useful for data mining and other kinds of analysis. We have not yet worked out the details of this idea.

Another distinctive feature of NUPOS is that it offers some ambiguous wordclasses, like 'jn' for words that hover between noun and adjective or 'an' for words that hover between noun and adverb (home, tomorrow).

All of the NUPOS parts of speech are displayed at the end of this appendix.


A lemma is a dictionary "headword" plus its word class.

For example, consider the verb "love" in Shakespeare. This lemma has the headword "love" and the word class "v". He uses this common lemma in 41 of his 42 works, a total of 1,135 times, in a variety of contexts with quite a few different parts of speech and spellings. For example, he uses it a total of 153 times with the part of speech "vvz", which is the NUPOS part of speech tag for verbs used in the third person singular in the present tense. 150 of these uses are spelled "loves", and three of them are spelled "loveth".

There is, of course, also a noun named "love". In NUPOS, there are two separate lemmata for the headword "love", one for the noun and one for the verb. In general, headwords like "love" are used to form NUPOS lemmata based on their word class, and the word class is listed along with the headword when naming the lemma. In our example, the NUPOS names for the two "love" lemmata are "love (n)" and "love (v)".

The set of all lemmata used in a work or collection of works is called the "lexicon" for the work or collection.


MorphAdorner reads source XML texts, locates sentence and word boundaries, and marks each word with five morphological tags -- the three spellings, the NUPOS part of speech, and the lemma headword. For contractions, MorphAdorner emits multiple parts of speech and headwords.

It's important to recall that MorphAdorner is more than just a part of speech tagger. It's also a spelling normalizer and a lemma tagger.

This tagging data emitted by MorphAdorner is sufficient to recover all of the information mentioned above for each word and word part, including the major word class, word class, part of speech category values, and lemma (headword plus major word class). Note that MorphAdorner only emits the lemma headword. The word class may be deduced from the part of speech.

Following the approach to contracted forms taken by NUPOS, Morphadorner treats contracted forms as a single token for two reasons.

  1. The orthographic practice reflects an underlying linguistic reality that the tokenization should respect.

  2. In Early Modern English (as in Shaw's orthographic reforms) contracted forms appear without apostrophes, as in 'noot' for 'knows not' or 'niltow' for 'wilt thou not'. It's not obvious how to split these forms. The situation is even less clear for dialectical forms.

Contracted forms get two part of speech tags separated by a vertical bar, but with regard to forms like "don't', "cannot", "ain't", MorphAdorner analyzes the forms as the negative form of a verb and does not treat the form as a contraction. It uses the symbol 'x' to mark a negative part of speech tag.


NUPOS comprises the following objects, attributes, and relationships:

  • Each word has three spellings: the token, standard original, and standard modern spellings.
  • Each word has an ordered list of word parts, usually only one except for contractions.
  • Each word part has a part of speech and a lemma.
  • Each part of speech has a name, a word class, and values for the grammatical categories of syntax, tense, mood, case, person, number, degree, and negative.
  • Each lemma has a name, a headword and a word class. The name of each lemma is formed from its headword and the name of its word class.
  • Each word class has a name and a major word class.
  • Each major word class has a name.
  • In a full implementation of NUPOS, all of these objects and their attributes can be used as criteria for searching, grouping, sorting, counting, and analysis.

The following diagram is useful as a way of summarizing NUPOS. It's not a formal UML diagram, and the drawing has no particular implementation implications, other than as a way of summarizing some of the functionality that any particular full implementation of NUPOS must support. It's just an informal way of making a picture out of the objects, attributes, and relationships enumerated above and described and defined in detail in this note. The double-headed arrow is used to indicate the relationship "may have more than one of", while the single-headed arrow indicates "has one and only one of". The term "list of" in the one-to-many relationship between words and their parts indicates that the parts of a word are ordered -- there's a first one, then a second one, and so on. This is important for dealing with n-grams.

NUPOS for English

The following table lists all the non-punctuation parts of speech defined by NUPOS. The first column provides the NUPOS part of speech tag. The second column describes the tag. The third column offers an example the part of speech. The fourth column provides a rounded count of occurrences of the tag in the NUPOS training data expressed as parts per million. That shows how commonly a tag occurs in the MorphAdorner training data. The training data consists of about six million words drawn from the following texts:

  • The complete works of Chaucer and Shakespeare
  • Spenser's Faerie Queene
  • North's translation of Plutarch's Lives
  • Mary Wroth's Urania
  • Jane Austen's Emma
  • Dickens' Bleak House and The Old Curiosity Shop
  • Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights
  • Thackeray's Vanity Fair
  • Mrs. Gaskell's Mary Barton
  • Frances Trollope's Michael Armstrong
  • George Eliot's Adam Bede
  • Scott's Waverley
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
  • Melville's Moby Dick

Examples are chosen for the most part from the training data.

Tag Explanation Example Occurences per million words
a-acp acp word as adverb I have not seen him since 9,500
av adverb soon 37,500
av-an noun-adverb as adverb go home 750
av-c comparative adverb sooner, rather 500
avc-jn comparative adj/noun as adverb deeper 8
av-d determiner/adverb as adverb more slowly 2,000
av-dc comparative determiner/adverb as adverb can lesser hide his love 1,900
av-ds superlative determiner as adverb most often 900
av-dx negative determiner as adverb no more 600
av-j adjective as adverb quickly 15,500
av-jc comparative adjective as adverb he fared worse 850
av-jn adj/noun as adverb duly, right honourable 1,100
av-js superlative adjective as adverb in you it best lies 150
av-n1 noun as adverb had been cannibally given 2
av-s superlative adverb soonest 14
avs-jn superlative adj/noun as adverb hee being the worthylest constant 0
av-vvg present participle as adverb lovingly 250
av-vvn past participle as adverb Stands Macbeth thus amazedly 85
av-x negative adverb never 1,300
c-acp acp word as conjunction since I last saw him 14,000
cc coordinating conjunction and, or 42,500
cc-acp acp word as coordinating conjunction but 6,500
c-crq wh-word as conjunction when she saw 6,500
ccx negative conjunction nor 1,200
crd numeral 2, two, ii 5,700
cs subordinating conjunction if 6,500
cst 'that' as conjunction I saw that it was hopeless 14,000
d determiner that man, much money 29,500
dc comparative determiner less money 850
dg determiner in possessive use the latter's 7
ds superlative determiner most money 450
dt article a man, the man 7,000
dx negative determiner as adverb no money 2,500
fw-fr French word monsieur 500
fw-ge German word Herr 15
fw-gr Greek word kurios 15
fw-it Italian word signor 10
fw-la Latin word dominus 400
fw-mi word in unspecified other language n/a 50
j adjective beautiful 49,500
j-av adverb as adjective the then king 1
jc comparative adjective handsomer 1,500
jc-jn comparative adj/noun yet she much whiter 70
jc-vvg present participles as comparative adjective for what pleasinger then varietie, or sweeter then flatterie? 1
jc-vvn past participle as comparative adjective shall find curster than she 1
j-jn adjective-noun the sky is blue 7,000
jp proper adjective Athenian philosopher 800
js superlative adjective finest clothes 1,500
js-jn superlative adj/noun reddest hue 200
js-vvg present participle as superlative adjective the lyingest knave in Christendom 2
js-vvn past participle as superlative adjective deformed'st creature 3
j-vvg present participle as adjective loving lord 2,000
j-vvn past participle as adjective changed circumstances 2,500
n1 singular, noun child 14,000
n1-an noun-adverb as singular noun my home 250
n1-j adjective as singular noun a good 4
n2 plural noun children 35,000
n2-acp acp word as plural noun and many such-like "As'es" of great charge 1
n2-an noun-adverb as plural noun all our yesterdays 9
n2-av adverb as plural noun and are etcecteras no things 1
n2-dx determiner/adverb negative as plural noun yeas and honest kerysey noes 0
n2-j adjective as plural noun give me particulars 200
n2-jn adj/noun as plural noun the subjects of his substitute 600
n2-vdg present participle as plural noun, 'do' doings 50
n2-vhg present participle as plural noun, 'have' my present havings 1
n2-vvg present participle as plural noun the desperate languishings 200
n2-vvn past participle as plural noun there was no necessity of a Letter of Slains for Mutilation 0
ng1 singular possessive, noun child's 2,500
ng1-an noun-adverb in singular possessive use Tomorrow's vengeance 6
ng1-j adjective as possessive noun the Eternal's wrath 1
ng1-jn adj/noun as possessive noun our sovereign's fall 60
ng1-vvn past participle as possessive noun the late lamented's house 0
ng2 plural possessive, noun children's 350
ng2-jn adj/noun as plural possessive noun mortals' chiefest enemy 50
n-jn adj/noun as noun a deep blue 2,300
njp proper adjective as noun a Roman 130
njp2 proper adjective as plural noun The Romans 1,300
njpg1 proper adjective as possessive noun The Roman's courage 8
njpg2 proper adjective as plural possessive noun The Romans' courage 20
np1 singular, proper noun Paul 27,500
np2 plural, proper noun The Nevils are thy subjects 350
npg1 singular possessive, proper noun Paul's letter 2,600
npg2 plural possessive, proper noun will take the Nevils' part 6
np-n1 singular noun as proper noun at the Porpentine 260
np-n2 plural noun as proper noun such Brooks are welcome to me 2
np-ng1 singular possessive noun as proper noun and through Wall's chink 20
n-vdg present participle as noun, 'do' my doing 20
n-vhg present participle as noun, 'have' my having 0
n-vvg present participle as noun the running of the deer 1,500
n-vvn past participle as noun the departed 50
ord ordinal number fourth 2,500
p-acp acp word as preposition to my brother 57,000
pc-acp acp word as particle to do 19,000
pi singular, indefinite pronoun one, something 2,200
pi2 plural, indefinite pronoun from wicked ones 50
pi2x plural, indefinite pronoun To hear my nothings monstered 2
pig singular possessive, indefinite pronoun the pairings of one's nail 35
pigx possessive case, indefinite pronoun nobody's 2
pix indefinite pronoun none, nothing 1,300
pn22 2nd person, personal pronoun you 9,000
pn31 3rd singular, personal pronoun it 10,500
png11 1st singular possessive, personal pronoun a book of mine 220
png12 1st plural possessive, personal pronoun this land of ours 35
png21 2nd singular possessive, personal pronoun this is thine 3
png22 2nd person, possessive, personal pronoun this is yours 100
png31 3rd singular possessive, personal pronoun a cousin of his 200
png32 3rd plural possessive, personal pronoun this is theirs 30
pno11 1st singular objective, personal pronoun me 5,000
pno12 1st plural objective, personal pronoun us 1,100
pno21 2nd singular objective, personal pronoun thee 1,200
pno31 3rd singular objective, personal pronoun him, her 12,000
pno32 3rd plural objective, personal pronoun them 4,700
pns11 1st singular subjective, personal pronoun I 14,500
pns12 1st plural subjective, personal pronoun we 2,200
pns21 2nd singular subjective, personal pronoun thou 2,000
pns31 3rd singular subjective, personal pronoun he, she 21,000
pns32 3rd plural objective, personal pronoun they 5,600
po11 1st singular, possessive pronoun my 6,700
po12 1st plural, possessive pronoun our 1,400
po21 2nd singular, possessive pronoun thy 1,650
po22 2nd person possessive pronoun your 3,000
po31 3rd singular, possessive pronoun its, her, his 19,000
po32 3rd plural, possessive pronoun their 3,800
pp preposition in 23,000
pp-f preposition 'of' of 29,000
px11 1st singular reflexive pronoun myself 350
px12 1st plural reflexive pronoun ourselves 55
px21 2nd singular reflexive pronoun thyself, yourself 250
px22 2nd plural reflexive pronoun yourselves 30
px31 3rd singular reflexive pronoun herself, himself, itself 1,300
px32 3rd plural reflexive pronoun themselves 220
pxg21 2nd singular possessive, reflexive pronoun yourself's remembrance 1
q-crq interrogative use, wh-word Who? What? How? 3,000
r-crq relative use, wh-word the girl who ran 10,000
sy alphabetical or other symbol A, @ 50
uh interjection oh! 3,000
uh-av adverb as interjection Well! 300
uh-crq wh-word as interjection Why, there were but four 500
uh-dx negative interjection No! 500
uh-j adjective as interjection Grumio, mum! 7
uh-jn adjective/noun as interjection And welcome, Somerset 30
uh-n noun as interjection Soldiers, adieu! 200
uh-v verb as interjection My gracious silence, hail 90
vb2 2nd singular present of 'be' thou art 300
vb2-imp 2nd plural present imperative, 'be' Beth pacient 10
vb2x 2nd singular present, 'be' thow nart yit blisful 2
vbb present tense, 'be' are, be 3,300
vbbx present tense negative, 'be' aren't, ain't, beant 60
vbd past tense, 'be' was, were 14,000
vbd2 2nd singular past of 'be' thou wast, thou wert 50
vbd2x 2nd singular past, 'be' weren't 0
vbdp plural past tense, 'be' whose yuorie shoulders weren couered all 30
vbdx past tense negative, 'be' wasn't, weren't 75
vbg present participle, 'be' being 1,300
vbi infinitive, 'be' be 5,600
vbm 1st singular, 'be' am 1,200
vbmx 1st singular negative, 'be' I nam nat lief to gabbe 3
vbn past participle, 'be' been 1,800
vbp plural present, 'be' Thise arn the wordes 260
vbz 3rd singular present, 'be' is 6,900
vbzx 3rd singular present negative, 'be' isn't 100
vd2 2nd singular present of 'do' dost 150
vd2-imp 2nd plural present imperative, 'do' Dooth digne fruyt of Penitence 6
vd2x 2nd singular present negative, 'do' thee dostna know the pints of a woman 2
vdb present tense, 'do' do 1,600
vdbx present tense negative, 'do' don't 500
vdd past tense, 'do' did 3,100
vdd2 2nd singular past of 'do' didst 55
vdd2x 2nd singular past negative, verb Why, thee thought'st Hetty war a ghost, didstna? 0.20
vddp plural past tense, 'do' on Job , whom that we diden wo 3
vddx past tense negative, 'do' didn't 90
vdg present participle, 'do' doing 110
vdi infinitive, 'do' to do 1,000
vdn past participle, 'do' done 700
vdp plural present, 'do' As freendes doon whan they been met 30
vdz 3rd singular present, 'do' does 800
vdzx 3rd singular present negative, 'do' doesn't 20
vh2 2nd singular present of 'have' thou hast 250
vh2-imp 2nd plural present imperative, 'have' O haveth of my deth pitee! 1
vh2x 2nd singular present negative, 'have' hastna 0
vhb present tense, 'have' have 2,500
vhbx present tense negative, 'have' haven't 30
vhd past tense, 'have' had 6,000
vhd2 2nd singular past of 'have' thou hadst 35
vhdp plural past tense, 'have' Of folkes that hadden grete fames 10
vhdx past tense negative, 'have' hadn't 20
vhg present participle, 'have' having 730
vhi infinitive, 'have' to have 2,400
vhn past participle, 'have' had 220
vhp plural present, 'have' They han of us no jurisdiccioun, 120
vhz 3rd singular present, 'have' has, hath 1,700
vhzx 3rd singular present negative, 'have' Ther loveth noon, that she nath why to pleyne. 11
vm2 2nd singular present of modal verb wilt thou 360
vm2x 2nd singular present negative, modal verg O deth, allas, why nyltow do me deye 4
vmb present tense, modal verb can, may, shall, will 8,300
vmb1 1st singular present, modal verb Chill not let go, zir, without vurther 'cagion 3
vmbx present tense negative, modal verb cannot; won't; I nyl nat lye 700
vmd past tense, modal verb could, might, should, would 8,300
vmd2 2nd singular past of modal verb couldst, shouldst, wouldst; how gret scorn woldestow han 120
vmd2x 2nd singular present, modal verb Why noldest thow han writen of Alceste 5
vmdp plural past tense, modal verb tho thinges ne scholden nat han ben doon 30
vmdx past negative, modal verb couldn't; She nolde do that vileynye or synne 160
vmi infinitive, modal verb Criseyde shal nought konne knowen me. 5
vmn past participle, modal verb I had oones or twyes ycould 2
vmp plural present tense, modal verg and how ye schullen usen hem 25
vv2 2nd singular present of verb thou knowest 480
vv2-imp 2nd present imperative, verb For, sire and dame, trusteth me right weel, 80
vv2x 2nd singular present negative, verb "Yee!" seyde he, "thow nost what thow menest; 1
vvb present tense, verg they live 17,000
vvbx present tense negative, verb What shall I don? For certes, I not how 30
vvd past tense, verb knew 33,000
vvd2 2nd singular past of verb knewest 75
vvd2x 2nd singular past negative, verb thou seidest that thou nystist nat 0
vvdp past plural, verb They neuer strouen to be chiefe 80
vvdx past tense negative, verb she caredna to gang into the stable 10
vvg present participle, verb knowing 13,700
vvi infinitive, verb to know 36,000
vvn past participle, verb known 26,200
vvp plural present, verb Those faytours little regarden their charge 330
vvz 3rd singular preseent, verb knows 7,200
vvzx 3rd singular present negative, verb She caresna for Seth. 1
xx negative not 7,800
zz unknown or unparsable token n/a 200
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